Thursday, May 21, 2020
The word hope is often used in moments of despair, more precisely to lift people out of those moments. For so many, hope is the light at the end of the tunnel, in the moments when it is hard to get back up it is often this ambiguous term that helps them get up. Of course, all words take on several meanings, and there are always different ways someone can interpret a word. However, according to the Oxford Online Dictionary hope is Ã¢â¬Å"a feeling of expectation and desire for a particular thing to happenÃ¢â¬ (Oxford Dictionaries). More often than not, hope is a feeling rather than something people express verbally. The poems Ã¢â¬Å"Hope is the thing with feathersÃ¢â¬ by Emily Dickinson and Ã¢â¬Å"Dare I Hope?Ã¢â¬ by Sophia White both address the term hope. AlthoughÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Both of the poems that I previously mentioned are focused around interpreting the term hope. As seen in the paragraphs before, it is easy to interpret the word in different ways, and t hat is precisely what these two poems are doing. Although both poems take their own approach to the word hope and do not share the same structure, there are some consistencies between each authorÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation. Both the poems by Sophia White and Emily Dickinson are centered around hope, however, the interpretations are very different, using symbols, metaphors and the structure of the poem to get their points across. The poem Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Hope is the thing with feathersÃ¢â¬ by Emily Dickinson begins its first two lines with a metaphor. Ã¢â¬Å"That perches in the soul - And sings the tune without the wordsÃ¢â¬ (2-3). These opening lines bring us into the rest of the poem where the author is describing the word hope through the metaphor of a bird. Dickinson continues to use metaphors throughout the poem. Later in the poem, she describes different aspects of hope. Ã¢â¬Å"And sore must be the storm/That could abash the little Bird/That kept so many warmÃ¢â¬ (6-8). This section is referring to difficult times, and telling us that hope does not falter when hardship comes. In this case, hardship is the storm. She follows this by giving the reader a metaphor for where hope can be
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Koslo Ford Contingency Planning 4-17-16 Contingency Planning The worldwide outage caused by the electromagnetic pulse due to the solar storm would affect most of the operations that take place globally (Davis, 2003). Since internationalization entails interdependence with other countries, it implies that the world will be at a standstill. The economic processes, social and political activities will stagnate. However, suppose the world becomes aware of the catastrophe, governments and different social institutions in various countries would employ some contingencies that will enable them to continue thriving. Various changes will occur in the social life, and most of them would be inclined to the downside. For instance, the health sector will be at mess because most hospitals use power in the modern world, leading to the decline in the health services. The education sector is also not an exception. The digitalization of learning systems in the civilized society made learning easier. Since the systems use power, education will also be altered. T hus, the outage will paralyze the learning activities globally. Davis (2003) argues that the worldwide shortage of power will also cause unemployment to people who work in power-driven companies. Since they operate and rely on electricity and digitalized communication systems, their production processes will stop, leading to their closure, and cause people to who used to work there lose their jobs. The deficiency in communicationShow MoreRelatedInformation On Continuity Of Operations For An Organization920 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfor an organization to asses any risks, procedures, and techniques when developing and implementing an IT contingency plan. This document discusses the planning steps in developing an IT contingency plan, possible recovery options for restoring operations, recommended testing requirements for developing an effective test plan, and a proposed 24 month test cycle. Ã¢â¬Æ' IT Resource Contingency Planning In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s net-centric world, even a day offline may damage an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business and profit marginRead MoreKodak s Product Innovation And Its Impact On A Competitive Industry1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontributed to this undesirable situation however implementing planning strategies would been beneficial to Kodak in regards to their profit expectations. In the case study Ã¢â¬ËMistakes Made on the Road to InnovationÃ¢â¬â¢ (2006) many of KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s management problems were discussed. KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s inadequate or inaccurate planning meant that they were ill-equipped for dealing with the environmental changes that took place. Schermerhorn (2014, p. 21) defines planning as Ã¢â¬Ëa process of setting performance objectives and determiningRead MoreManagement Planning Ã¢â¬â Boeing Corporation1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesManagement Planning Ã¢â¬â Boeing Corporation Management: Theory, Practice and Application/MGT330 Management Planning Ã¢â¬â Boeing Corporation Management planning is the first basic process in a series of four fundamental management functions. The planning function is a vital for any company because it is a process of formulating goals, provides focus to achieve those goals, and gives direction in the attainment of the goals. Boeing is a large, global corporation and many internal and external factorsRead MoreWorldcoms Management Planning Function1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn every aspect of life, todays decisions impact the state of the future, this is determined by planning. In management planning involves setting objectives and determining a course of action for accomplishing these goals. This requires managers to be good decision-makers as well as aware of environmental conditions facing their organization in order to predict future conditions. Established in 1988, WorldCom Public Relations Group was formed to allow the most independent public relations firmsRead MoreA Little Room For Creativity1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pag esorganization? To answer these questions, an understanding on the different approaches/theories of organizational design is needed. According to (Huczynski 2010), there are two main approaches to Organizational design. 1. THE CLASSICAL APPROACH 2. THE CONTINGENCY APPROACH Rhodes (2005), mentioned that (Weber, 1947), (Fayol, 1949) and (Taylor, 1947) were the significant contributors of Classical approach. They all set a bunch of principles that would be useful and helpful for the organizational works. ClassicalRead MoreManagement and Company1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Evaluate the planning function of management as it relates to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and strategies. Use steps in the planning process outlined in the text. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Analyze the influence that legal issues, ethics, and corporate social responsibility have had on management planning at BP. Provide at least one example for each. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Analyze at least three factors that influence the company s strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. Planning Part of the management functionRead MoreThe Effects Of A Conscious Strategy Using Examples Where Organisations That Engage Planning As A Deliberate Activity, Achieve Greater Success1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis essay will examine and analyse the effects of a conscious strategy using examples where organisations that engage planning as a deliberate activity, achieve greater success. An examination of of planning and strategy in this paper will argue the strengths and weaknesses using specific models, case studies and examples to analyse this concept. Planning and Strategy differ, strategy is a detailed plan setting longer term directions and guides the organisation which key elements and resourcesRead MoreBoeing Management Planning Essay1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract This paper will discuss the management planning of Boeing. Boeing, being a leading distributors of aircrafts, satellites and missiles, I will evaluate and analyze the impact of legal issues, ethics and social responsibility in which they carry. I will show how these factors may influence their strategic, tactical and contingency planning. . Boeing Management Planning Boeing is one of the major aerospace and defense contractors in the United States. Boeing was founded by WilliamRead MoreDefinition Of Management Control Systems Essay1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdifferent type of controls. Variation in firmÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives, strategies, cultures, structures and sizes are the factors that oppose the idea to rely extensively on a control system that use financial target as a single scope of performance measures. Contingency theory postulates Ã¢â¬Å"there is no universal applicable control system with universal validity to all organisation in all settings. In contrast, the specific surroundings and external factors an organisation is exposed to shape the systemÃ¢â¬ (CIMA, 2013)Read MoreProject Management1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmanager is responsible for such as: 1) Time and resource allocation and management 2) Setting up a team structure, specifying responsibilities, lines of command and reporting 3) Motivating the team, and establishing communication channels 4) Project planning, scheduling and progress control 5) Managing and controlling change to the system and overall quality 6) Interfacing and liasing with the client/user and senior management The important attributes needed in a person, so they are able to manage a
Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza Analysis Executive Summary These recommendations will enable Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s to increase their market share and grow their customer base. These recommendations are based upon in-depth analysis of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s dominant economic forces, macro-environment, The detailed findings, resulting from this analysis, are contained in the appendix that follows the recommendations. The appendix is comprised of seven exhibits, and these exhibits are referenced in the recommendations. We will write a custom essay sample on Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s or any similar topic only for you Order Now This recommendation includes introducing global topping preferences across different nations, entering the frozen pizza market and allowing premade Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s pizza to be sold in stores, and opening dine-in restaurants. Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s can capitalize on these new growth and improvement opportunities, to increase their revenues, efficiencies, and customer base. Recommendation Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s third largest pizza chain, trailing Pizza Hut and Dominos. (Exhibit 4, pg. 1) Although Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s has established a notable amount of success in the industry, to have only existed for a shorter period of time than its rivals, there are existing opportunities that would help Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s to gain competitive advantage and build on its core competencies. Currently Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s is known for its commitment of quality ingredient and quality pizza. (Exhibit 6, pg. 13) Because Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s has a base of customers that already trust the company to deliver great value, this gives Papa an advantage in capitalizing on the segment of health conscious consumers. (Exhibit 1, pg. ) Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s should introduce whole wheat pizza and other organic ingredient and toppings that are low in calories to attract consumers that feel that pizza isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a healthy choice. Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s should also make changes to its distribution strategy. In order to compete with Pizza Hut and other restaurants that offer their customers an option to dine in, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s allow their customers to come to their facility/location be seated and enjoy a meal. This would also attract a larger demographic of consumers. Ã¢â¬ËPizza jointsÃ¢â¬â¢, over the course of time, have been generally been more popular among college students and the younger generation. Exhibit 1, pg. 6) If Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s where to restructure their establishments to a more sophisticated environment, it could draw the attention of an older and/or more professional consumer group. Another distribution strategy Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s should explore is the Take Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ Bake strategy. (Exhibit 1, pg. 6) The Take Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ Bake strategy is a fairly new concept, which involves providing premade, uncooked pizzas for consumers to take home to bake at their own convenience. Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s could have premade pizzas of their own sold in stores. This would allow Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s to compete with brands like DiGorno, etc. nd to reach consumers who prefer homemade/frozen pizza. There is opportunity for Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s to offer itÃ¢â¬â¢s consumers a broader selection of menu items. While rivals such as Pizza Hut and Dominos have grown to offer everything from oven-baked sandwiches and pasta, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s has been very slow pursuit in spicing up its offerings. Being that the company does have an international presence, and different countries have different preferences for topping combinations, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s should study its customer data and the trends in popularity for various toppings and introduce topping across nations. (Exhibit 7, pg. 15) If there is an area in the U. S. that has a high population of Russians, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s should offer popular Russian toppings, such as sardines, tuna, salmon, and red onions, etc. , in the that area. (Exhibit 10, pg. 16) Appendix Exhibit 1:Ã Dominant Economic Features6 Exhibit 2:Ã The Five Forces Model7 Exhibit 3: Driving Forces10 Exhibit 4: Market Position of Rivals11 Exhibit 5: Macroenvironment12 Exhibit 6: SWOT Analysis13 Exhibit 7:Ã Global Toppings15 Exhibit 1: Dominant Economic Features Market Size and Growth Rate * Studies reveal that, in 2012, the pizza industry is worth $42. 8 billion in revenue and includes a more than 65+ thousand pizzerias. Pizza sales make up 17%, of the entire restaurant industry, and are expected to grow by 31% by 2015. Number of Rivals * The industry is fragmented into pizza chains and independent pizzerias. * The pizza chain segment is dominated by the Ã¢â¬Å"Big 4Ã¢â¬ , which includes Pizza Hut, DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s, Papa Johns, and Little Caesars, that make up 32% of the industry sales and 28% stores. * Independent pizzerias account for 57% of stores and 48% of industry sales Number of BuyersÃ¢â¬âRetailers and End? Consumers * Consumers between 25 and 44 years old make up 46. 3% of all consumers. * Consumers between the ages of 45 and 64 make up 22. % of all consumers * Consumers under 25 make up 16. 2% and those over 65 make up 14. 7% Degree of Product Differentiation * Products are becoming more differentiated, in order to accommodate the growing consumer demand for specialty/gourmet pizza. * 4 channels of distribution: sit-down, carry-out, delivery, and take Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ bake Pace of Techn ological Change * Technology does not play a huge role in this industry, but it does serve opportunity for the players in this industry to better interface with their consumers. Exhibit 2: Five Forces ModelRivals/Competition The Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ (Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, Pizza Hut, DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza, and Little CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s) Rivals/Competition The Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ (Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, Pizza Hut, DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza, and Little CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s) Suppliers Farmers Small Business Owners IT Providers (internet, applications, software, web presence, etc. ) Suppliers Farmers Small Business Owners IT Providers (internet, applications, software, web presence, etc. ) Substitutes Homemade Pizza Frozen Pizza Other restaurants Substitutes Homemade Pizza Frozen Pizza Other restaurants New Entrants Independent/Small Pizzerias New Entrants Independent/Small Pizzerias Buyers Customers between the ages of 25 and 44 (largest segment), with well-established careers and families. Buyers Customers between the ages of 25 and 44 (largest segment), with well-established careers and families. The five predominant forces that influence Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s are as follows: Competitive Rivalry, New Entrants, Substitute Goods, Buyer Bargaining Power, and Supplier Bargaining Power. Rivalry among Competing Sellers * Buyer demand is growing rapidly * Consumer spending is expected to increase by an average annual rate of 2. 9%, up to 2017 * The products of rival sellers are differentiated and customer loyalty is high * Buyer costs to switch brands are high Threat of New Entrants Threat of new entrants from independently owned pizza restaurants is high because they have the capital to open multiple units. Threat of Substitute Products * There are many choices for consumers to purchase pizza from locally owned to national chains therefore the threat of substitutes is high. Bargaining Power of Buyers * With the multiple outlets available for consumers the bargaining power of b uyers is high because if prices are too high they will shop elsewhere. * Additionally, many consumers switch between pizza restaurants because they choose the outlet with the best prices at that time. Bargaining Power of Suppliers * The bargaining power of suppliers is high for the nationally owned pizza restaurants so they can demand lower prices. * The bargaining power of suppliers for locally owned pizza restaurants is low because they do not buy in large quantities. Exhibit 3:Ã Driving Forces Four main forces are driving the pizza industry. In order to compete in this industry, a company must capitalize on (1) Emerging new internet capabilities and applications, (2) growing buyer preference for differentiated products, (3) changes in cost efficiency, and (4) changes in societal concerns, attitudes, and lifestyles. Emerging new internet capabilities and applications * Due to new technological advancements, the pizza industry has enabled their consumers to view menus, receive coupons/promotions, and make and track orders online and via mobile device. * Most industry players have also taken advantage of the new wave of social media and have established presence on sites such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. These social media sites allow a more personal connection with their customers, and allow customers to freely voice their satisfaction or lack thereof with the product or service. Changes in cost efficiency As the fuel prices continue to increase, it becomes less convenient and less likely for consumers to purchase from establishments similar to Little CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s, which only offer carry out/pick up and no delivery. Growing buyer preferences for differentiated products instead of standardized commodity product Changing societal concerns, attitudes, and lifestyles * A 2010 survey, conducted by th e National Restaurant Association (NRA), showed that 7 out of 10 consumers are now trying to eat healthier when eating out and that 2 out of 3 restaurant guests pay more attention to the nutritional content in their food and ordered healthier items. Exhibit 4: Market Position of Rivals The graph that is shown below details the market position of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s main rivals. Pizza Hut (11. 6%) Pizza Hut (11. 6%) Convenient Convenient Product Differentiation Product Differentiation Local Local Local Local Local Local Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s (6. 3%) Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s (6. 3%) Distribution Distribution DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s (9. 8%) DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s (9. 8%) Little CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s (4. 7%) Little CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s (4. 7%) Inconvenient Inconvenient Low Low High High In the strategic group map above, the x-axis represents the diversity of product offerings (from least to greatest diversity). The y-axis represents the convenience of distribution, in other words how accessible the product is to the consumer. The circles on the map are drawn roughly proportional to market share in 2012. Exhibit 5: Macro-environment ECONOMIC FACTORS ECONOMIC FACTORS Rivals Rivals Substitutes Substitutes HEALTH CONCERNS HEALTH CONCERNS TECHNOLOGY TRENDS TECHNOLOGY TRENDS Buyers Buyers Suppliers Suppliers PAPA JOHNÃ¢â¬â¢S PAPA JOHNÃ¢â¬â¢S New Entrants New Entrants Exhibit 6:Ã SWOT Analysis Strengths High Quality Ingredients * Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s uses only fresh ingredients in the pizza production process. Customers perceive value of high quality fresh ingredients. * Many of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors use frozen pizza dough and sauce made from concentrate therefore using fresh ingredients enables them to meet customer expectations better than the competition. Weaknesses Limited Menu * Although Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s allows its customers the flexibility of creating their own pizza or choose from over 9 specialty pizzas. In comparison to its competitors, the Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s menu remains fairly simplistic. Locations * Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s is still considered new to the pizza market, they are not as large as the competition. Most of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s competition has doubled the amount of stores. As a result, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s is not able to serve as large a market as the competition. Opportunities Expansion * The upside to the location issue is that Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s has not saturated all of the markets that are available to them; whereas the competition may not be able to obtain additional store growth. * Target Health Conscious Customers * Diversify Menu Threats Independent establishments Fast-casual restaurants Exhibit 7: Pizza Toppings From Around the World How to cite Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, Essay examples Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Free Essays Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Analysis Alex Quiquia 3/19/13 MGMT 4800 Strategic Analysis of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s IntroductionÃ¢â¬âWe already know that Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s is a major player in the Pizza industry but what does the future hold for them. One of the business-level strategies that Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s implemented was product differentiation through the use of fresh dough and superior-quality ingredients. John Schnatter believed that other pizza restaurants used inferior ingredients and that he could do it better. We will write a custom essay sample on Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s or any similar topic only for you Order Now This strategy was implemented from the very beginning in the United States. Another successful business-level strategy that focused on product diversification employed by Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s was the use of technology to order pizza. In 2001 they became the first pizza company to offer online ordering. The most significant corporate-level strategy used early on by Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s was mergers and acquisitions. In the late 90s, the company acquired 205 Ã¢â¬Å"Perfect PizzaÃ¢â¬ restaurants in the UK. They continued aggressively acquiring international restaurants until the early 2000s when they began to focus their acquisition efforts domestically. In just under 30 years since opening its first store, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s has added over 4,000 stores (papajohns. com). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s an average of over 140 new stores every year since inception, an incredible pace. They also decided to use the franchisee model. Although this model has its critics, it can be a very useful way to generate revenue without adding to store overhead, etc. The franchisee model has been successful for Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s. Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s was enjoying a 5+ percent average revenue growth rate for the previous five years. The company also boasted one of the highest returns on invested capital in the restaurant category of the markets. Total assets grew steadily from 2003 to 2007 as well. This growth was financed mostly by debt, but debt/equity ratios remained healthy. Apparently Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s holds a competitive advantage in its fresher, higher-quality ingredients. When a customer is looking for a restaurant-quality pizza with ease of delivery, they turn to Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s. External AnalysisÃ¢â¬â During this study, the pizza industry was extremely competitive. Barriers to entry were few and competitors could drive prices for pizza ingredients extremely low, enabling them to easily undercut other competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ prices. Food commodity prices also took a 20 percent jump in 2007, which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make the industry any more attractive. One of the attractive features of the industry is that because pizza ingredients are commodities, supplier power is very low. Suppliers cannot dictate prices to buyers, because they can go somewhere else. Buyer power, however, is very high. If someone doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t wish to buy a $12. 00 pizza at Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, they can go across the street to Little CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s for a $5. 00 pizza that tastes almost the same. The two major competitors of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s are Dominos and Pizza Hut. Both of these companies enjoy a larger market share than Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s. These companies are focused more on price savings than Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, who is focused on quality pizza. Just like any other sub-section of the food industry, thousands of pizza restaurants are opened each year, which continues to make profits more difficult to obtain. Internal AnalysisÃ¢â¬âThe commissary system is an important part of what gives Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s an edge over its competitors. Every Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant belongs to a subdivided region, and each region has what is known as a commissary. These commissaries send fresh ingredients and cleaning supplies twice per week to all the Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurants within their region. This ensures fresh ingredients and all the supplies needed to clean the restaurants. This also maintains consistency from restaurant to restaurant as all of the commissaries are controlled at the corporate level. By servicing several units from one commissary, labor costs are also driven down. Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s international growth is also an advantage it has over many of its competitors. By taking advantage of all different markets around the world, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s ensures that business is most likely thriving somewhere at all times. All of these factors create a competitive advantage for Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s. Recommendations Based on this analysis of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, the following recommendations are made to help the company continue its profitability. 1. Expand internationally as much as possible. With several stores in diverse locations throughout the world, Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s will be well diversified and able to absorb losses in one area better. 2. Continue to move more toward the franchisee model even more so than they are currently doing. By furthering this model, overhead and administrative costs at the corporate level are drastically reduced. How to cite Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Changes of the patronage system during Renaissance Different from the fully developed art market today, there were few individual traders of art works in the Renaissance period. Historically, artists rarely undertook major artworks without a patronÃ¢â¬â¢s concrete commission. The patron could be a civic group, religious entity, private individual, or even the artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ guild itself. Art patrons before the Renaissance period tended to be either royalty or clergy. Kings from various kingdoms commissioned works of art and architecture from famous artists and architects of the period. In the early part of the Renaissance Northern Europe especially the Holy Roman Empire whose core was Germany enjoyed a relatively stable economic period. Without a dominant court culture the clergy and merchants became patrons of the arts. The dominant themes of this period were mostly religious themed art. The artist would submit proposals to his patron for approval and if approved would begin the project with the patrons guidance. We will write a custom essay sample on Patronage System in Renaissance or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Usually the painting or sculpture was meant to project the wealth and power of the patron. The most dominant themes were religious themes. Art patronage in the Italian Renaissance came from different sources, public and private, religious and secular, much as it does today. It was not always so. Times were hard for rich and poor alike during the Middle Ages. Europe saw the collapse of the feudal system. Following this, peasants who had previously worked the fields under the protection of their feudal lords left the countryside, migrating to the towns and city centers in pursuit of more lucrative means of support. As population centers became crowded, unfortunately, so followed the Black Death, wiping out a large percentage of the inhabitants. Patronage of the arts was given little thought during this time as people were struggling merely to survive. When the plague finally subsided, however, there emerged a new thriving middle class of merchants and businessmen, men who had wealth and leisure time. Some of this wealth was channeled into the arts during the Early Renaissance. Among this merchant class, a new interest in education developed, specifically reading and mathematics, the language of contracts. There also developed an interest in the pursuit of pleasure like music, literature, and fine art. There still remained some aristocratic, noble families such as those in Ferrara and Mantua who maintained great courts. There arose from the middle class new nobility, competing with the nobility to patronize the arts, particularly in Florence. Most prominent in Florence among the new nobility were the Medici, who earned their fortunes in the banking industry. The Medici and other Florentine families of note used their enormous wealth to maintain lavish lifestyles, create beauty, both public and private, and to provide extravagant entertainments for the masses. In Venice art patronage was largely controlled by the scuolas, or confraternities, great religious and social organizations. The church was also an important patron of the arts. Creative individuals like artists, architects, musicians, and writers benefited substantially from art patronage during the Italian Renaissance. Artists in Italy had to go through a training program in a particular guild for whichever art they practiced. Starting from childhood as an apprentice studying under a master and learning the basics of their craft, then as a journeyman studying under different masters and, then finally becoming a master. Artists, who were largely anonymous during the medieval period, began to enjoy greater emancipation during the 15th and 16th centuries, when they rose in rank from artisan to artist-scientist. The value of their individual skillsÃ¢â¬âand their reputationsÃ¢â¬â became increasingly important to their patrons and clients. Northern Renaissance on the other hand evolved differently from the Italian Renaissance. In the north where the central governments tended to be weaker a majority of the arts commissioned came from lay organizations and to a lesser extent the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was weaker in the north as opposed to their seat of power in Rome. The Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization of political power. While Italy and Germany were dominated by independent city-states, parts of central and Western Europe began emerging as nation-states. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church had lasting effects, such as the division of the Netherlands. The political and religious situation in Northern Europe greatly affected the patronage system in that lesser nobles were more likely to be a patron of the arts. Also because of the weakness of the Catholic Church works of art commissioned by the church was not as prevalent. In Northern Europe guilds controlled the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s future in the artistic profession. To pursue a particular skill in painting or sculpture for example one had to belong to that particular guild. The Guild of Saint Luke, the patron saint of painters for example controlled the guild of painters. The path to eventual membership in the guild began, for men, at an early age. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s father for example would negotiate with a master for his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into a particular guild. The aspiring painter would usually live with the master. The master taught the basics of his craft. For example how to make implements, prepare panels with gesso (plaster mixed with a binding material), and mix colors, oils, and varnishes. Once the young apprentice learned these procedures studied the masterÃ¢â¬â¢s particular style. The apprentice would then spend a few years as a journeyman working in various cities, learning from other masters. He then was eligible to become a master and to apply for admission to the guild. The guild, obtained commissions for the new master. His work was inspected by his peers to ensure that he used quality materials and to evaluate his workmanship. The guild also made sure he was adequately compensated for his work. As a result of this quality control, Flemish artists for example soon gained a favorable reputation for their solid body of work. There is a marked difference in aesthetics between northern European Renaissance artists and Italian Renaissance artists. The Northern artists retained the more rigid Byzantine style of painting. An example would be Dirk Bouts, Last Supper, center panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament, Saint PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s, Louvain, Belgium, 1464Ã¢â¬â1468. Oil on wood. Although it is a marked improvement from the early Byzantine style as far as perspective and the realism of the human form it still retains the rigidity and formality of the movements of the subject. The perspective and vanishing point along with the scale of the painting is better than the earlier styles. In contrast the Italian painters took lessons from earlier Greek and Roman styles in their portrayal of the human form. An example would be Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, ca. 1495Ã¢â¬â1498. Oil and tempera on plaster, Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. His portrayal is a complete departure from the Byzantine style. The human body is portrayed in its natural form and movement the rigidness is not present. The subjects seem to be frozen in the middle of moving as if a picture was taken. The scale of the painting is more realistic, and the background seems to convey a three dimensional image. In conclusion, the patronage system during Renaissance changed by the influence of social, religious and geopolitical factors. However, the most evident thing I can see from the text that is the Italian artists were less conservative than Northern European artists. According to the text, Italian accepted and developed more new techniques and concepts, but the Northern European artists were a kind of sticking on the former styles, and made less dramatic changes. Then, the other thing I did not mention above which could show us Northern Europeans were more conservative than Italians is that Northern Europeans depicted less nude images than Italians during the Renaissance. All in all, no matter what style they used, artists during the Renaissance period left us great works, they are all priceless treasures, and memories of our human-beingsÃ¢â¬â¢ history.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
How To Pronounce Swath and Swathe How To Pronounce Swath and Swathe How To Pronounce Swath and Swathe By Maeve Maddox When I wrote a post on the confusion between the meanings of the nouns swath and swatch, I discovered that considerable disagreement exists regarding the pronunciation of the noun swath and the verb swathe. NOTE: The noun swath denotes the narrow path of cut grass made by a scythe or mower. The verb swathe means Ã¢â¬Å"to wrap up, swaddle or bandage.Ã¢â¬ If all you want from this article is to know how to pronounce swath and swathe, please skip the middle and read the part that begins, Ã¢â¬Å"My advice to speakers.Ã¢â¬ If like me you enjoy exploring changes in pronunciation, read the middle as well. Daniel Jones Pronouncing Dictionary This British reference, published 1967, gives one pronunciation for the spelling swath: /swÃâÃ Ã ¸/ [swawth] and one for swathe: /sweÃ ªÃ °/ [swayth]. Note: The spellings between square brackets are for readers unfamiliar with the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) symbols. Plain a represents the broad a of father. Plain th represents the unvoiced sound of th heard in thin. Th represents the voiced sound of th heard in then. Ay represents the long a heard in late. Oxford English Dictionary For the verb swathe, the OED shows /sweÃ ªÃ °/ [swayth] as both British and US pronunciation. For the noun swath, the OED shows /swÃâÃ ¸/ [swath] for both British and US pronunciation. It gives /swÃâÃ °/ [swath] as a variant US pronunciation. The spelling swathe is noted as a variant spelling of the noun swath. Merriam-Webster Unabridged The main entry for the noun shows the spelling swath, followed by an audio pronunciation that models broad a with voiced th: /swÃâÃ ¸/ [swath]. The spelling swathe is given as a variant spelling, but the pronunciation modeled for it on the audio is /swÃâÃ °/ [swath]. Dictionary.com The noun swath is shown with the pronunciation /swÃâÃ ¸/ [swath]. Two pronunciations are given for the verb swathe: Ã¢â¬Å"/swÃâÃ °/ [swath] or /sweÃ ªÃ °/ [swayth].Ã¢â¬ Howjsay.com This site usually gives the British pronunciation of a word first, followed by US pronunciation is applicable. However, the principal pronunciation given for swath is not OEDÃ¢â¬â¢s /swÃâÃ ¸/ [swath] but voiced /sweÃ ªÃ °/ [swayth]. Four Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ pronunciations are given: [swath], [swath], [sworth], and [sworth]. No doubt about it, English speakers have problems with swath and swathe. Charles Elster (The Big Book of Beastly Pronunciation) devotes nearly an entire page to the pronunciation of the verb swathe. He begins by showing [swayth] as the Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ pronunciation, acknowledging that the word is Ã¢â¬Å"now oftenÃ¢â¬ heard pronounced as [swath]. He prefaces his discussion by lamenting: I find it nothing short of remarkable that- viewed from the perspective of the dictionaries- a pronunciation that has prevailed in cultivated speech for more than 150 years can be replaced, seemingly overnight, by a newly minted variant that no authority has recognized, rejected, or even remarked upon. He blames Merriam-Webster for the aberration, pointing out that in 1961, Ã¢â¬Å"in an astonishing bit of lexicographic legerdemain,Ã¢â¬ WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Third Edition Ã¢â¬Å"gave priority to the heretofore unknown and unbaptized SWATH and labeled the traditional SWAYTH Ã¢â¬Å"infrequent.Ã¢â¬ He ends his rant with a reluctant acceptance of broad a for the verb as well as for the noun, but pleads that speakers keep the voiced th: However you choose to pronounce the a, do not, under any circumstances, pronounce the th with a dental hiss as in breath and death. It must be voiced, as in seethe, breathe, and rather. My advice to speakers who are not yet set in their ways regarding swath and swathe is this: If you mean the noun, spell it swath and pronounce it /swÃâÃ ¸/ [swath]. Example: Ã¢â¬Å"The mower cut a swath six feet wide.Ã¢â¬ If you intend the verb, spell it swathe and pronounce it to rhyme with bathe. Example: Ã¢â¬Å"Do not swathe the baby too tightly.Ã¢â¬ Note: The spelling swathe [pronounced /sweÃ ªÃ °/ [swayth] can be used as noun to mean Ã¢â¬Å"a band of linen or other fabric used to wrap something; a length of fabric.Ã¢â¬ British author Marjorie Eccles uses swathe as a noun in her mystery The SuperintendentÃ¢â¬â¢s Daughter (1999): Abigail eased her waybetween the stands of wallpaper books and rolls of furnishing fabrics jostling modern and antique pieces of furniture. Swathes of rich, stained-glass-coloured old silk and velvet lay side by side with currently fashionable jujube-coloured cottons, lemon and lime and orange. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Apply to, Apply for, and Apply with34 Writing Tips That Will Make You a Better Writer50 Tips on How to Write Good
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Deepest Point in the Oceans The Earths oceans range in depth from the surface to more than 36,000 feet deep. The average depth clocks in at just over 2 miles, or about 12,100 feet. The deepest known point is nearly 7 miles below the surface. Deepest Point in the World's Oceans The oceans deepest area is the Mariana Trench, also called the Marianas Trench, which is in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. The trench is 1,554 miles long and 44 miles wide, or 120 times largerÃ than the Grand Canyon. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the trench is almost 5 times wider than it is deep. The deepest pointÃ of the trench is called Challenger Deep, after the British shipÃ Challenger II, which discovered it on a 1951 surveying expedition. Challenger Deep lies at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands. Various measurements have been taken of the oceans depth at Challenger Deep, but it is usually described as 11,000 meters deep, or 6.84 miles beneath the oceans surface. At 29,035 feet,Ã Mount EverestÃ is the tallest spot on Earth, yet if you submerged the mountain with its base at Challenger Deep, the peak would still be more than a mile below the surface. The water pressure at Challenger Deep is 8 tons per square inch. By comparison, water pressure at a depth of 1 foot is just over 15 pounds per square inch. Creation of the Mariana Trench The Mariana Trench is at the convergence of two of the Earths plates, the massive sections of the planets rigid outer shell just below the crust. The Pacific plate is subducted or dives underneath, the Philippine plate. During this slow dive, the Philippine plate was pulled down, which formed the trench. Human Visits to the Bottom Oceanographers Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh explored the Challenger Deep in January 1960 aboard a bathyscaphe named Trieste. The submersible carried the scientists 36,000 feet down, which took 5 hours. They could spend only 20 minutes on the sea floor, where they viewed an ooze and some shrimp and fish, although their view was hampered by sediment stirred up by their ship. The trip back to the surface took 3 hours. On March 25, 2012, filmmaker and National Geographic Explorer James Cameron became the first person to make a solo voyage to the deepest point on Earth. His 24-foot tall submersible, theÃ Deepsea Challenger, reached 35,756 feet (10,898 meters) after a 2.5-hour descent. Unlike Piccard and Walshs brief visit, Cameron spent more than 3 hours exploring the trench, although his attempts to take biological samples were hampered by technical glitches. Two unmanned submersibles- one from Japan and the other from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts- have explored the Challenger Deep. Marine Life in the Mariana Trench Despite cold temperatures, extreme pressure, and lack of light, marine life does exist in the Mariana Trench. Single-celled protists called foraminifera, crustaceans, other invertebrates, and even fish have been found there.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Incorporate - Essay Example This price that the option is offered is referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"grantÃ¢â¬ price. This Ã¢â¬Å"grantÃ¢â¬ price is usually the market value of the shares at the time the employees are granted that opportunity to receive the stock option. Those employees that have received the grant hope that the market value of the shares will later increase and thus benefit from the grant. This program is perceived as a flexible way of sharing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership with employees. This thus calls for high performance of employees as they feel attached to the company they are working for. It also attracts and retains a motivated workforce. However the option is not a strategy that would work for a company that its future is not certain as members and staff off the company would take that opportunity to sell their shares to avoid total loss of their investment. This can be valued by using the information of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report. Using HP as our case study we begin by valuing the employee stock options using the black-Scholes option pricing method. To calculate the black-Scholes value, we combine the information with our estimates of the following